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tv   C-SPAN Cities Tour in Chico California  CSPAN  May 12, 2017 7:15pm-8:01pm EDT

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[laughter] c-span's washington journal, live, every day with policy issues that affect you. coming up saturday morning, foreign policy magazine discusses the latest in the federal investigation into potential ties between the trump campaign and the government. then, the executive director director for the national congress of american indians discusses the interior department's management of mid- and native american land. live atto watch c-span 7 a.m. eastern on saturday morning. join the discussion. ♪laughter] >> c-span, where history unfolds
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daily. cesium was created as a public service by america's cable television companies. it brought to stay your cable or satellite provider. >> for the next 45 minutes, an american tv exclusive. we go to chico, california to learn about history. for six years, we have traveled across the united states to learn more about historic sites and you can learn more on c-span.org. it is hard to really grasp how important -- was to our state's history from founding the city of chico to delivering the news of california's inception into the country. in october 1850 in san francisco. his legacy and footprint can be seen through california.
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here, this is the mansion where we are the home to 5.2 acres of -- roughlyl 22,000 -- square feet and it is a mansion that was constructed from 1865 to 1868. the style of architecture that we see today is referred to as the villa. there is a number of potential explanations as to why this chosen this style of architecture. being in a mediterranean climate, and being that the structure was constructed before conveniences like air-conditioning and electricity , he wanted to be able to cool his house down as quickly and efficiently as possible.
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on the third floor, the ceilings which todayhardware is called a fan, minus the electricity. are acting as insulation to keep the home cool or warm depending on the time of year. they are also equipped with spaces to act as heaters placed through the invention -- through the mansion. immediately, -- fell in love with the location. several years down the road and a gold rush and california. he obtained the financial means to be out to purchase it from his business partner and associates. he purchases 22,000 acres. $11,000.over
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in two separate installments for payments. originally, if you were ,nquiring for a land or job this is a room that he may have been shown in a mansion. map, on the desk in front of you, we have a sketch. middle purchases this in to temper -- in two separate installments for over $11,000. over the course of purchasing this land, -- is elected to the california state senate and he actually leaves to go to washington, d.c. to form california as part of the united states the california -- united states of america. he travels to san francisco via longer and delivers the anticipated news of californians becoming part of the united states of america.
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roughly 10 years after purchasing, it becomes known as the city of chico. in 1878, 18 years after the city is founded, he donates the original eight acres for the school to be founded. today, it is known as chico state. the second oldest in the state of california. here we are in the most interesting room of the mansion. today, the library is home to a vast array of original items including the bookcases themselves, 80% of the literature within the cases, the native american artifacts within the cases and the chinese tapestry in the corner. the quality of literature scene within this room is it something that would have been considered typical for the average household of the time.
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and this offers a great insight into the lives and minds. here, thinking to the history woman suffrage, we can see that they were involved in the women's suffrage movement. he openly comes out and says that he will help earn women the right to vote and he will make alcohol illegal. other items of interest that you may find in the room are a piece of literature on the agriculture and natural resources. he was an experiment farmer at heart. in the development of california agriculture. he viewed agriculture as the bread basket that could supply california with agricultural needs. it is believed that the a happy one.was he passes away in 1900 and any
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outlives him by 18 years, here in the mansion. living alone within the mansion, annie is a force to be reckoned with. she ran the agriculture corporations here as well as managing over 20,000 acres of land. having never had children of their own. at the time of her death in 1918, the remaining small portion of land, as well as the mansion is deeded to the church. descendents of friends and family, descendents of family as well as the church and the school also receive small items or handfuls of items in the will. after visiting here, i hope that visitors leave with a better understanding of the fact that ahn and annie bidwell played role in the history of the town
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and also in the development of the state of california at the heritage of the states that we get to enjoy today. suche chinese were here at a valuable time. chico was coming here into its own. starting in 1840 and onwards. so i really consider them helping build the foundation for what chico is today. they have a really important role. we are standing in front of an altar of a chinese temple. it is house here at the chico museum in downtown chico. they get start settling here as early as 1840. this was part of a movement happening across the united states. was the fall of the dynasty in china. they were looking for more opportunities. so a lot of them did come here, their passage was paid for by other chinese merchants. and in coming here, i had to work to pay back the expense.
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they primarily came here to mine for the gold. working also ended up in agriculture and factories. also working for major houses and plantations. and also, on the transcontinental railroad. , life or50 and onwards the chinese here, they were primarily the workers. there was a lot of friction between them and other ethnic groups. stick and settle in their own communities. seen as were competition because they were willing to work for lower wages. they were also seen as bringing americanquality of morality because they had
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settled in groups where there was prostitution and opm use and also, they were considered sort the racial to composition of america so there was a whole set of racist, anti-chinese movements happening at this time. this would even up into violence. even in chico. there were people going into these china towns and setting their community on fire. intoup of six men went some chinese were cuts on a local ranch and shot and killed five chinese workers. and unfortunately, this was happening throughout the united states. ongoingwas part of anti-chinese violence. so basically, there was no repercussion for this kind of behavior. and it included arson and
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robbery, theft and physical violence. was aon't think it hospitable climate for them. and that is what we see in chico. eventually, they left. there was too much violence here and i ended up going to -- many of them ended up going to san francisco. a lot of the chinese community here in chico were asking for six companies. which was a group of chinese in san francisco. frank was a lawyer who helped them. defenseve some sort of in these trials. involving anti-chinese crimes. eventually, the companies felt that the chico groups were too far to kind of protects and they advised them to eventually just go to san francisco.
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what happened. and that is why we don't have a long-standing chinese community here. i mean, they had whole sections of the community. offers ank this testament to the kind of life they lived. establishtrying to themselves. not only with their religious values but opening up medicinal shops. they held cultural parades and holidays. and they would parade through the streets of downtown. i feel like they were really trying to make this their home, away from home. and the anti-chinese movement happened everywhere. with anything, especially with the arts and culture, to show that you don't want someone around or two -- you remove these things. the cultural objects. someone'swipe out
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precedents. and i think that might've happened to a lot of cultural artifact. all of this furniture, all of the altered furniture, it was all recovered and is put in in the exact same way that it was originally. what we are trying to do at the setum's honor the original up as much as possible. what i've noticed is that there is a hierarchy in history which really shouldn't exist. and a lot of people think that local history in a small town is somehow smaller and less significant. but i think what this reminds us is that we are part of a bigger hole. the whole united states history. and the issues that took place here were the same across the country. that is why local history, just as any other history, is important because we are all connected and we need to learn from that. >> growing up, it was really
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hard because during the 1980's, as you already know, historically, a lot of folks didn't know about -- people. ask me what nationality i am. and whenever tell them, there would be a blank face. they would ask what country i was from and i would say from thailand. and they would say oh, you are from thai. and i would say close, but we're different. so having to explain that all the time as a cade, it was a lot. like i was me feel really different because nobody knew about me. nobody knew what long was. and the traditional mong land was. i felt ashamed of being because i didn't want to have to do a
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history lesson every time i told somebody i was -- so when somebody would say hey, your ,ame sounds chinese or hawaiian i would just say yes, sure, i am. and that goes to the same with different generations. not knowing a lot of our history and background, that is one thing that they feel that could somewhat be a burden, having to tell somebody every time -- who my people are. and when we know so clearly that our parents and my brother and my dad allied with the americans to fight in the vietnam war -- so there was a big question about well, how come nobody knows about us? we helped americans. our uncles and aunts died during the war but how come nobody knows about us? so that is only started to realize that we were truly the secret. it was called the secret war. and the americans really didn't
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know about us. >> right now we are at the museum of anthropology on the california state university of chico's campus. museum of of the only anthropology is in the north state of california. so we actually cater to a large public audience. calledrent exhibit is mom reflections. of our own. a specific exhibit on the population and their journey from southeast asia and the united states. specifically, this is an exhibit where we try to understand their journey. their hardships and challenges was also their determination to create a new life in the united states. this is the first part of our exhibit. this section is the beginnings. it introduces the visitor to the cameof where the mong
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from. it is a more difficult history to tell. and traditional museum approaches, you will often see a map explained that a group of people came from a group of areas with defined dates and history but in our approach, we work with different community members to discuss how to explain their history to an audience that might not know much. so one thing that came out was the idea of folk tales and myths. one of the first things you want to emphasize is that the mong has a specific story about the creation of the world. and how, actually, we have individuals that actually talk about this and how the sunshine and the moon were created. for example, we have the son of and his name was -- and he
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pushes up the sky to make it bigger. and he makes a gold lamp called the son. he then makes the silver lamp which we call the moon. stories help to create a better context instead of just thinking about the mong from a different place. another different important story folktale is also the story of the famous flood, in which a couple get into a big drama as a massive flood occurs. they survived by staying within the drum. theys they emerge, procreate and create a baby who is distributed across the land, who create the different clans and people of the mong. finally, with the help of the national museum of technology and beijing, we were able to receive a map which actually taught us more about the origins
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of the mong. from china. actually, they think of themselves as coming from china. and actually, this is a challenging history, considering with the greater chinese expansion, south, specifically, we do see more and more mong people being pushed from northern, central and finally into southern china. there were several complex between the mong and the chinese at this time, considering that their land was being taken from them and they were being oppressed and marginalized. so we have the rebellions and the rebellion in which the mong were pitted against the chinese over issues of oppression and land control. and because of these conflicts in china, we do start to see greater migration of the mong from southern china into areas such as laos and vietnam.
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understandt thing to about the history of the mong people and their migration to the united states is the war,ence of the secret specifically, as well is that led up to the secret war. so actually, behind me is an jars, manye plain of places that was bombed heavily during this time in history. this is around the same time of the vietnam war. theactually, it anti-communist conflicts that took place greatly influenced the mong people at this time. we can take a little bit more of a history -- learn more about the history of this specific situation, starting with the french and how they set up colonies in the mid-1800s in vietnam and laos. a colony ofecame
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the french. where the french were actually using different resources and changing the dynamics in which people could own and use different land. so we did see, under french colonial rule, a certain amount of oppression and extensive taxing on local farmers and people, specifically. in particular, the mong people. the 1850's.round leading up into the early 1900s. see,ctually, we start to with world war ii, the start of told war ii in the 1940's up 9045, we start to see that the japanese start to come in and parts of laos. and there are certain side in which ethnic groups took. instead of siding with the
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japanese, actually sided with the french and the royal laos government. and actually, they helped the king of laos to get out of the control of the japanese at that time. have aorld war ii, we time between 1945-1954 as a show in this timeline here, where the andch bow out of laos basically, it is an opportunity for the expanding chinese communist forces to come in and influenced greatly what we start to see as the influence on vietnam and in laos. andave important characters individuals that participated in these different titles and skirmishes at this time. but it is important to know that while we call the mong engagement in this particular fight against the communist, the secret war -- why we call it that? and actually, this does start a
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little bit earlier than john f. kennedy. it starts with dwight d. eisenhower. emphasized the problem in 1953 of the domino theory. he emphasized that if laos happened to fall to vietnam and to the communist of the northern vietnamese, then potentially, this could lead to the fall of myanmar and thailand and eventually, india. seer this, we do start to that eisenhower signed the 1954 southeast asian treaty organization, an attempt to halt the communist expansion in the area of southeast asia. this is followed with john f. in 1962 thissigns foreign assistance act. launch theway to deployment of u.s. troops to
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vietnam and to train allied forces. prior to this, with the french and vietnam laos and laos becoming an independent country in 1954, this gives an ofortunity for the expanding the economist forces to come in and expand even into laos. and we do start to see a large communist group that starts to emerge in laos. so an important thing to remember is that, what were the mong doing at this time? weretioned that the mong supporting the royal laos government against the japanese. as the communists were encroaching into laos and it started to expand, the mong were anti-communist. fightingwere actually against the communists in laos to protect their freedoms and their land.
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to see the emergence of a particular character, an important individual named general bank how. of fighters force engaging in guerrilla warfare. and he fought against the communists. the general was trying to expand his efforts and fighting against the communists and this is what happens, in which john f. operationn a covert with the cia and specifically bill layer, they go into laos and actually find the general fighting against the communists. the decide to side with general and give him military support. andping military weapons that was into the area to support his forces and we start to see a force that started with
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only a few thousand people start to turn into tens of thousands of fighters against the communist. over the course of this time from the 1960's into the early 1970's, we start to see the the communist through laos and through the eventual demise of the mong guerrilla warfare warriors fighting against them. we actually start to see tens of thousands of individuals actually dying and it is recorded that 50,000 mong civilians and fighters died at this time. fathers fighting in this war who happen to die over the course of fighting had their sons actually take their place. so we actually have records of ofldren from the ages 11-12-13-14 and 15 fighting in the front lines against the communists.
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we income to united states until the 1980. making the decision to come to a brand-new country was a big decision. and my dad wasn't sure if this is what he wanted to do. and realizing that my older brother wanted to come and that he had come ahead of us, that we would eventually follow him. toldirst location was that, oklahoma. in all places, oklahoma is where we landed. and what might i decided to move here, i said chico? where is chico and why chico? but it was family. my uncle had just gotten to the united states from thailand. and roughly 1990 -- two or three years before that. so my dad came to visit him and he likes the town. and he said, we are moving to chico because uncle lives there and we will go and visit there. and that is how we came here.
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so from oklahoma to wisconsin and now to chico, california. the senses based on from 2010 is a little over 4000. it may be more now. of course. nearest other town would be orville. that is 2000 or 3000 there as well. so it is growing. and if you look at data into the city area, we are not even counting the outskirts. >> this is a story cloth. of monga important part culture and it aided in their survival in the refugee camps. in the refugee camps they were given and allocated amount of food. but they really didn't have any financial means to live off of. many of the women in the refugee camps engaged in using their traditional techniques of exile
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creations and making. thai andoration with mong clients living outside of the camps, they started to take some of the textiles that were given to them, the thread given to them, and they started creating story cloths. this is actually only starting to occur in the refugee camps in thailand. so in this particular one, which is a large one, they come in different shapes and colors and depict different things. not only people but they also have animals on them or folktales as well. in this particular story cloth, we start to trace the journey of the mong people. laosis southeast asia to where they engage in different farming techniques. growing corn and rice. cutting sugarcane. we also start to see the different types of livestock
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that they had and took care of. and then we start to move into the area where the communists start to expand in laos and they start to attack mong people in laos itself. seelly, we start to migration. and fleeing from laos into thailand. crossing the river. asbamboo rafts, as well rubber inner tubes. finally, in thailand, they are situation in different refugee camps. eventually they make their way to bangkok to then migrate to foreign nations such as the united states. left to people also other countries in the world such as australia and france and germany and countries in south america. >> if it was up to our parents,
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they probably would never have woken up one day to wake up and just say go to america. to know that we're just like everybody else. we are here and we work hard. and we want to be accepted. who like any other group has come to america, for whatever reason. and to understand that even though we don't have a mong land, our younger generations that are born here, we do want to call ourselves mong americans. and that we are their neighbors and that we are their friends. we are standing at a place that holds profound significance people heregenous in this part of you county. the people regard this place as the particular location where, in their cosmology, the creator
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had human beings emerge into the world. it is also alumni glenn as far as the california state university chico is concerned. >> with the discovery of gold not too far south of here and the inability to keep the discovery a secret, the news quickly spread and the ratio of settlers to native people began to radically shift. whereas prior to the gold rush, there would have been somewhere settlers in 5000 all of california but by 1855, that would have skyrocketed to above 50,000. wereers the relations fraught. not for every group at every moment. but there was a profound sense of racism towards native people.
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was aseral appetite use bigger indians. subhuman used as because they didn't have the same kind of technological accoutrements that european settlers considered standard. and it isn't because they were not clever enough to figure it out. it is because those things were irrelevant to their daily lives. they were able to -- on the coast, when the tide went out, they would -- in this part of valley, thentral crops of acorns provided a very important calorie rich food source for them. wild game. dear, small animals, insects -- they were a staple of the regular diet. and fish. there were abundant salmon runs in some cases,-
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two different runs of the same species of the creeks and rivers. so there was no need really to have complicated technology. the critical issue became access to resources. because with the huge influx of merchantsminers and who were mining the miners -- selling them equipment that they thought they needed, it came again to be scarce. diverted and were in some cases, completely upended. began tod sources disappear forth the native people, they naturally look for stock. and one of the main industries here in the spread of california as well as elsewhere was hide trade.
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the idea was to raise a lot of capital to sell the tallow and skin and also the meat. these cattle were critical resources for the settlers. but were also viewed as potential food sources by native people. so there were many conflicts that arose simply over the fact that hungry native folks would have poached account here and there area and slowly, over the course of several months of two a year and half between 1850-1852, these kinds of go deeperns began to and deeper into the white settler community. f they began to be punished more and more systematically. and ultimately, the rationale for outright murder, if not genocide of indigenous groups -- well, we will teach them a lesson so they stop doing this. -- here, the attitude was
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these people can't be trusted and we need to exterminate them, essentially for their own good. this is rhetoric that existed at the time. one effort to try to minimize these kinds of assaults was to move california indians to reservations. and here in this area, the idea was to move local people to a reservation 100 miles west of whaton the other side of is now the national forest in the coast range in coppola around valley. people ofely 470 mccue cap and mounted my do and various other tribes in the area were essentially corralled. and then they were marched over the course of two weeks in mid-september of 1863, 100 miles to their new home.
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this reservation over the mountain. in the coast range. the forced relocation in 1863 is the known cold walk. that was the name of the reservation that was created in round valley. this series of forced not a very is well-known aspect of american history in general. and california history in particular. imagine,as one might it is not a pleasant chapter. it is very brutal. it is a brutal series of events. in the radically reduced population of indigenous people here. dramaticallyt but
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outrightthrough sheer genocidal methods. it was 18 years ago. from around valley in coppola decided to organize a memorial walk. in september,hat they would retrace the steps that their ancestors were forced to take. and ever since then, for the last 18 years, every september, folks gather here in chico. and they take a week to walk 100 miles to cope below. it is a very meaningful and profound ceremony. it is regarded as a spiritually healing effort to not just commemorate the fact that the ancestors survived the arduous journey and that the defendants are here today, it also to think
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deeply about why this happened. values of to instill mutual respect. and tolerance. >> agriculture and california in general is extremely important. it is the number one industry in california and we are the number one state in the nation in terms of agriculture. there are 23 csu campuses but only four of them have agriculture. chico are present the northern part of the statement we draw students rollover california to get experience in agriculture. chico, as a region, started primarily in the gold rush. the first people here after the native americans were those who either had a land grant or were a prospector. my family came in 1850.
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my family has been in this kids will be my six generation to be involved in agriculture in this area. historically, it was pre-eric k. shinseki it was what you could grow with natural rainfall. a barley wheat, cattle, goals and timber. that is what chico was founded on. in the john bidwell area, they started to go into more diversity. particularly the sheep business which became strong. post that, the biggest change we saw is in the early 1900s, we started to see more control and management of floods and irrigation in agriculture and we saw a shift, particularly when rice came to butte county. south of chico, 10-15 miles and it really change the agricultural economy about it.
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so after he moved through rice, what we saw was all of the fertile lands along the river, we started to experiment with different kinds of crops. we sat crops of all kinds were planted here. very diverse because we have great soil. and from that point on, we started to see an evolution. 50 years ago,bout roughly, we started to see the increase in orchard crops. particularly walnuts and almonds.-- and crops in particular. around chico, they are the dominant planting crops. cracks we are at the 800 acre university farm. it is the paul agriculture research and teaching institution. we are the living laboratory for students in the culture of
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agriculture. they get hands-on experience for growing crops and tending orchards and caring for livestock. that impacts the education they are building their careers around. the agriculture program was established in 1953 when the university president at the time determined that it was the number one industry or vocation in northern california that was not being served at the time. then the early days of two-year program, they cobbled together the hands-on learning experience by visiting various farms and ranches around the area. and eventually, they determined that they really needed their own set-aside farm for students to really get their hands dirty and be able to make mistakes and get the three and 65 day year experience of farming. most of the staff who work here are state employees. so we don't have a lot in terms of the salary and labor costs,
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other than the students. we do pay the students who work here. we have 40-50 students were -- who are on the payroll here and they do get paid from the farm proceeds but we don't have to pay the staff working to manage the students. because they are on the state payroll. other than that, for the most part, it is funded by the farm itself. wonderful donors who believe in the mission of educating students in agriculture and the value of this farm. so they've contributed to help worked the farm with new to grow the mission. >> it is kind of fun. sometimes not so fun being university farm because we have to abide by the regulations that farmers have to deal with. and in california, it is a lot. but we'd be additional regulations that come from being a state entity. ande have the labor rules
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when we want to build anything, we have to go through the state regulations and processes as well as what a normal farmer would have to do. so we get it from both sides. chico was built on the university and agriculture. so in the college of agriculture, we get to experience the best of all of that. have a great relationship with the agriculture community, which is the economic driver here in this region of california. agriculture is the number one crop or industry. and i really feel like this is one of the things that makes it so great. the connection to agriculture. and the opportunity to interact with consumers and farmers and have everyone coming together in a place like this. our visit to chico california is an american history tv exclusive and we showed it to you to introduce you to the c-span cities tour.
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theravel to cities across united states to explore their literary sites. you can watch more on c-span.org. >> tonight on c-span, today's white house reefing. jeff sessions announces a new policy of seeking tougher penalties on federal drug prosecutions. and michelle obama talks about nutrition and childhood obesity. national security adviser h.r. mcmaster led off today's white house briefing by answering questions about president trump's upcoming overseas trip. and then sean spicer took reported questions on the news of the day including fallout from the firing of james comey. this is 50 minutes.

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